KWANDO M. KINSHASA, PhD is a Full Professor of Sociology in the African American Studies Department, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York. He is author of African American Chronology: Chronologies of the American Mosaic (Greenwood Press, 2008). Black Resistance to the Ku Klux Klan in the Wake of the Civil War (McFarland, 2006), The Man From Scottsboro: Clarence Norris and the Infamous 1931 Alabama Rape Trial, in His Own Words (McFarland, 1998, 2003), and Emigration vs. Assimilation: The Debate in the African American Press: 1827-1861 (McFarland, 1988). Dr. Kinshasa’s numerous articles and research interest examine the sociological interaction and consequences of voluntary and involuntary migration patterns on social unrest within the Africana Diaspora. His current articles and interest is in examining the plight of colonized migrants who participated in anti-colonial resistance movements as well as the plight of internal national migrant groups in Europe and Africa. Dr. Kinshasa specializes in 19th century African American history with a particular emphasis on migration.