The Scholars

Vanessa Barker is an Associate Professor of Sociology at Stockholm University. She received her Ph.D. from New York University and is the author of The Politics of Imprisonment: How the Democratic Process Shapes the Way America Punishes Offenders (Oxford University Press, 2009). She has published recent work on democracy and deportation, border control and ethnicity, and the welfare state and comparative penal sanctioning. In the US, she works on questions about the prison and the public sphere. In Europe, she is currently working on a comparative project on border criminology. She was a LAPA Fellow at Princeton University (2007-2009), has received funding from the National Science Foundation (2009-2011), and recently was awarded the Riksbanken Jubileumsfond Sabbatical (2015-2016) to complete a new book on states, borders and penal order.

Katherine Beckett is a Professor in the Department of Sociology and in the Law, Societies, and Justice Program at the University of Washington. She received her Ph.D. in Sociology from the University of California at Los Angeles in 1994. Her research analyzes the causes and consequences of legal changes and penal practices. Beckett’s earlier books, Making Crime Pay: Law and Order in Contemporary American Politics (Oxford University Press, 1997) and The Politics of Injustice: Crime and Punishment in America (Pine Forge, 2000) analyzed how and why crime-related issues assumed a central place on the U.S. political agenda, and why enhanced punishment was embraced as the best solution to these problems. More recent research projects have explored the consequences of penal expansion for social inequality, the role of race in drug law enforcement, and the transformation of urban social control practices in the United States. She is the author of numerous articles and three books on these topics, including, most recently, Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America (Oxford University Press, 2010) which was nominated for the C. Wright Mills Book Award.

Todd Clear is Provost at Rutgers University-Newark; previously, he was Dean of the School of Criminal Justice. In 1978, he received a Ph.D. in Criminal Justice from The University at Albany. Clear has also held professorships at Ball State University, Florida State University (where he was also Associate Dean of the School of Criminology and Criminal Justice) and John Jay College of Criminal Justice (where he held the rank of Distinguished Professor). He has authored 13 books and over 100 articles and book chapters. His most recent book is The Punishment Imperative, by NYU Press. Clear has also written on community justice, correctional classification, prediction methods in correctional programming, community- based correctional methods, intermediate sanctions, and sentencing policy. He is currently involved in studies of the criminological implications of “place,” and the economics of justice reinvestment. Clear has served as president of The American Society of Criminology, The Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences, and The Association of Doctoral Programs in Criminology and Criminal Justice. His work has been recognized through several awards, including those of the American Society of Criminology, the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences, The Rockefeller School of Public Policy, the American Probation and Parole Association, the American Correctional Association, and the International Community Corrections Association. He was the founding editor of the journal Criminology & Public Policy, published by the American Society of Criminology.

Anne-Marie Cusac is Associate Professor of Journalism, College of Arts and Sciences at Roosevelt University, Chicago, and a contributing writer to The Progressive. She is the author of Cruel and Unusual: The Culture of Punishment in America (Yale, 2009), winner of the 2009 Prevention for a Safer Society (PASS) Award sponsored by the National Council on Crime and Delinquency. The book explores the cultural evolution of punishment practices in the United States. It first looks at punishment in the nation’s early days, when Americans repudiated Old World cruelty toward criminals and emphasized rehabilitation over retribution. This attitude persisted for some 200 years, but it has been abandoned in recent decades. The book discusses the dramatic rise in the use of torture and restraint, corporal and capital punishment, and punitive physical pain. It links this new climate of punishment to shifts in other aspects of American culture, including changes in dominant religious beliefs, child-rearing practices, politics, television shows, movies, and more.

Alan Page Fiske is a psychological anthropologist at UCLA. He is best known for his relational models theory and research showing that there are only four fundamental, universal forms of intrinsically motivated social coordination. He is currently studying the emotion of being moved or touched, which occurs when communal sharing relationships are suddenly intensified. He and Tage Rai formulated the relationship regulation theory of moral psychology. Building on this, their new book, Virtuous Violence, shows that, across culture and history, all kinds of violence are morally motivated to regulate social relationship in accord with cultural implementations of the fundamental relational models. Fiske has long been interested in why in nearly all cultures people interpret misfortune as a moral experience: either suffering is perceived as punishment for the transgression of a relationship, or suffering is seen as a transgression against the victim that justifies punishing the person responsible for it.

Mark Fondacaro is currently a Professor of Psychology at John Jay College of Criminal Justice. Before joining the faculty at John Jay, he was an Associate Professor of Psychology at the University of Florida and an Associate Director of the Levin College of Law’s Center on Children and Families. He received a B.A. in psychology with an outside concentration in the biological sciences from Stony Brook University and a Ph.D. in clinical psychology from Indiana University-Bloomington. He pursued post-doctoral training in social ecology at Stanford University before completing his legal training at Columbia Law School. His theoretical work focuses on the development of an “Ecological Jurisprudence” and his empirical research has focused on adapting legal concepts of due process and procedural justice to extra-legal contexts such as the family and the health care system. Professor Fondacaro has recently co-authored (with Christopher Slobogin) a book entitled “Juveniles at Risk: A Plea for Preventive Justice” that was published by Oxford University Press. He has authored numerous articles in both law reviews and behavioral science journals on issues of procedural justice, due process, family conflict resolution, and juvenile justice reform. He is currently working with a team of graduate student assistants in his Social Justice Laboratory on a series of empirical studies aimed at identifying defendant and situational factors that may bias judgments of criminal responsibility. Professor Fondacaro’s innovative interdisciplinary scholarship and research have earned him national and international recognition and invitations to serve as a Visiting Researcher at Stanford University, a Visiting Scholar at New York University, and a Visiting Professor at Duke University. Professor Fondacaro currently serves as an editor for the Journal of Youth and Adolescence. In addition to his prior service on the editorial board of Psychology, Public Policy and Law, he has served as a peer reviewer for a wide range of interdisciplinary journals including Behavioral Sciences & the Law, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Law & Society Review, Journal of Family Issues, Health Education and Behavior, Prevention in Human Services, Law & Human Behavior, Social Justice Research, and International Journal of Forensic Mental Health. Professor Fondacaro has taught courses in abnormal psychology, juvenile and criminal law, mental health law, scientific evidence and is teaching a seminar on neuroscience and law during the spring
2015 semester.

David Garland joined the NYU School of Law faculty in 1997. He received his law degree with first-class honors and a PhD in socio-legal studies from the University of Edinburgh and a master’s in criminology from the University of Sheffield, and is noted for his distinctive sociological approach to the study of legal institutions. Garland is the author of a series of award-winning books, including Punishment and Welfare: A History of Penal Strategies (1985); Punishment and Modern Society: A Study in Social Theory (1990); The Culture of Control: Crime and Social Order in Contemporary Society (2001); and Peculiar Institution: America’s Death Penalty in an Age of Abolition (2010). He is a corresponding fellow of the British Academy, a fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, and a fellow of the American Society of Criminology. Garland has also been a Davis Fellow at Princeton University’s History Department (1984-85) and a J. S. Guggenheim Fellow (2006-07). In 2009, he was awarded a doctorate honoris causa by the Free University of Brussels. In 2012, the American Society of Criminology awarded him the Edwin H. Sutherland Prize for outstanding contributions to theory and research. In the fall of 2014, he will be Shimizu Visiting Professor at the London School of Economics.

Marie Gottschalk is a professor of political science at the University of Pennsylvania. She specializes in American politics, with a focus on criminal justice, health policy, race, the development of the welfare state, and business-labor relations. Her latest book is Caught: The Prison State and the Lockdown of American Politics (Princeton University Press, 2014). She is also the author of The Prison and the Gallows: The Politics of Mass Incarceration in America (Cambridge University Press, 2006), which won the 2007 Ellis W. Hawley Prize from the Organization of American Historians, and The Shadow Welfare State: Labor, Business, and the Politics of Health Care in the United States (Cornell University Press, 2000). Professor Gottschalk is a former editor and journalist and was a university lecturer for two years in the People’s Republic of China. She was a visiting scholar at the Russell Sage Foundation in New York and was named a Distinguished Lecturer in Japan by the Fulbright Program. She served on the American Academy of Arts and Sciences National Task Force on Mass Incarceration and was a member of the National Academy of Sciences Committee on the Causes and Consequences of High Rates of Incarceration.

David A. Green is Assistant Professor of Sociology at John Jay College. He received his M.Phil. and Ph.D. in Criminology from the University of Cambridge and was a postdoctoral Junior Research Fellow at Christ Church, University of Oxford. He was awarded a fellowship at New York University Law School’s Straus Institute for the Advanced Study of Law and Justice for 2010-11. His main research interests involve the interrelationship between crime, media, public opinion, punishment, and politics, often in a comparative perspective. He is currently working on projects related to mass-mediated terrorism; public and state punitiveness; America’s changing penal climate; and the evolution and significance of the Second Chance Act of 2007. He was awarded the 2007 Young Criminologist Award by the European Society of Criminology. His first book, When Children Kill Children: Penal Populism and Political Culture (Oxford University Press, 2008) received the 2009 British Society of Criminology Book Prize. Other published works include “Penal Optimism and Second Chances: The Legacies of American Protestantism and the Prospects for Penal Reform” (Punishment & Society, 2013), “Punitiveness and Political Culture” (Sociology Compass, 2012), “Feeding Wolves: Punitiveness and Culture” (European Journal of Criminology, 2009), and: Comparing Penal Cultures: Child-on-Child Homicide in England and Norway” (Crime and Justice, 2007). He is currently working on his second book, tentatively titled Selling Redemption: The Second Chance Act and American Penal Culture. He has received federal grant funding from the Department of Homeland Security (with M. Hartwig) and is associate editor of the journal Crime, Media, Culture.

Maria Hartwig is an Associate Professor of Psychology at John Jay College. She  completed her graduate training in her native Sweden, where she conducted empirical research on social judgments in legal settings. She has authored over 50 publications, focusing mostly on the psychology of deception and its detection, and on interview and interrogation techniques. She has also carried out extensive training of a variety of legal professionals, including prosecutors, judges, police detectives, and military officers. She is an editorial board member of Law and Human Behavior and Legal and Criminological Psychology. In 2008, she received an Early Career Award by the European Association for Psychology and Law, and in 2012, she received the Saleem Shah Award for Early Career Excellence in Psychology and Law, awarded by the American Psychology- Law Society and the American Academy of Forensic Psychology. She has received grant funding from The Department of Homeland Security (with D.A. Green), the Swedish Research Council, and the Federal Bureau of Investigation/High-Value Detainee Interrogation Group (HIG).

Judge Morris B. Hoffman was appointed to the Denver District Court in December 1990. He has served in all divisions, and presided over the Denver Grand Jury for 11 years. He is chair of the Colorado Supreme Court’s Panel on Multidistrict Litigation and is a member of the Colorado Supreme Court’s Criminal Rules Committee. He has received many awards, including the 2004 Law School Alumni Award for Distinguished Service in the Judiciary, the 2000 American Board of Trial Advocate’s Judicial Excellence Award, the 1995-96 Denver Bar Association Judicial Excellence Award, and the 1989-90 Colorado Bar Association Civil Litigator Award. He has published extensively, in journals including the University of Chicago Law Review, Stanford Law Review, NYU Law Review, Duke Law Journal, in collections published by the Royal Society and Oxford, and on the op-ed pages of national newspapers. He has lectured on law and biology across the country and in England.

He is a member of the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation’s Research Network on Law and Neuroscience, and a research fellow at the Gruter Institute for Law and Behavioral Research. He is the author of The Punisher’s Brain: The Evolution of Judge and Jury (Cambridge 2014).

Douglas N. Husak is Professor of Philosophy at Rutgers University. He received his Ph.D. and JD (cum laude) from Ohio State University. He has written, taught, and lectured widely on the philosophical, moral, and legal issues involving drugs and drug use, especially on the controversy surrounding the decriminalization of drugs. He has studied the connections between moral philosophy and the substantive criminal law, especially decisions about criminalization and the moral limits of criminal sanction. He takes a “rights-based” approach to these topics, rather than the economic or cost/benefit approach commonly taken by other critics of drug prohibition. His recently published book Drugs and Rights is the only book written by an academic philosopher to attempt to describe the conditions under which the use of a drug should or should not be criminalized. He has published over 100 scholarly articles and books. His most important books include Overcriminalization (Oxford University Press, 2008); Philosophy of Criminal Law (Rowman & Allanheld, 1987); Drugs and Rights (Cambridge, 1992), and a collection of essays The Philosophy of Criminal Law: Selected Essays (Oxford, 2010). He continues to explore the topic of the boundaries of the criminal sanction and is especially interested in how the requirement that punishments be deserved limits the range of conduct for which criminal liability may be imposed.

Jonathan Jackson is Professor of Research Methodology and member of the Mannheim Centre for Criminology at the London School of Economics. He received his Ph.D. in Social Psychology from London School of Economics and has held visiting appointments at New York University, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, and the Universities of Oxford, Sydney and Cambridge. In the 2014/2015 academic year he is a Visiting Senior Research Scholar at Yale Law School and a Visiting Scholar at Harvard Kennedy School. His broad research interests include procedural justice, legitimacy, risk perception, fear of crime, and methodological issues around measurement. He is the author of over 70 publications, including two books: Just Authority? Trust in the Police in England and Wales (Routledge, 2012, with E.A Stanko and K Hohl) and Social Order and the Fear of Crime in Contemporary Times (Oxford University Press, 2009, with S.D. Farrall and E. Gray). He is also currently co-editing a collected volume entitled The Routledge Handbook of Criminal Justice
Ethics (with Professor Jonathan Jacobs, Department of Philosophy at John Jay College of Criminal Justice).

Jonathan Jacobs is Professor of Philosophy and Director of the Institute of Criminal Justice Ethics at John Jay College. He received his Ph.D. in philosophy from the University of Pennsylvania and taught for over twenty years at Colgate University. He is the author of nine books, editor of two others, and has published over seventy articles in several areas of philosophy, including ethics, philosophy of law, medieval philosophy, and moral psychology. He has been a Visiting Professor or held fellowships at Oxford, Cambridge, the University of St. Andrews, the University of Edinburgh, and the Social Philosophy and Policy Center at Bowling Green State University. He has received grants from the National Endowment for the Humanities, the Earhart Foundation, and the Littauer Foundation, and he has directed an NEH Summer Seminar for faculty. He is currently working on issues concerning the aims and justification of punishment in a liberal political order, and the relation between criminal justice and broader conceptions of justice. He is directing a multi-disciplinary, collaborative project to explore ways in which the understanding of agency, character, and identity have implications for constructively reintegrating ex-offenders in civil society. The role of an agent’s states of character in ethical comprehension, reasoning, and motivation is one of his longstanding interests. He is Presidential Scholar in Philosophy at John Jay.

Michael Jacobson is the Director of the CUNY Institute for State and Local Governance (ISLG). ISLG is a newly-created institute within the City University of New York. The Institute’s mission is to assist current and future leaders in government, non-profit organizations and
the private sector, in the U.S. and internationally, by offering research, technical assistance, and executive development, to help achieve improvements in the financing, delivery and measurement of critical public services. Jacobson previously served as president of the Vera Institute of Justice for eight years. Before joining Vera, Jacobson was a professor at the Graduate Center for the City University of New York and the John Jay College of Criminal Justice. He was the New York City correction commissioner from 1995 to 1998 and the city’s probation commissioner from
1992 to 1996. Prior to that, he worked in the New York City Office of Management and Budget, where he was the deputy budget director. He is the author of Downsizing Prisons: How to Reduce Crime and End Mass Incarceration. He serves as chair of the New York City Criminal Justice Agency and holds a PhD in sociology from the Graduate Center. Jacobson is the fourth president of Vera, which was founded in 1961.

Jan de Keijser studied political science at Leiden University. In 2000 he got his Ph.D. (cum laude) at the same university. His Ph.D. research focused on consistency in sentencing in relation to the goals and functions of punishment. From 2000 until 2010 he was senior researcher at the Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime and Law Enforcement (NSCR). Since April 2010 he is working as a Full Professor of Criminology at the Institute of Criminal Law and Criminology. His research interests are connected to the legitimacy of the criminal justice system. Apart from the decisions on proof and punishment in criminal cases, his research interests include public opinion towards punishment, confidence in the criminal justice system, and the communication between forensic experts and the courts. He published books and articles on these topics in both national and international journals. He is Associate Editor of the European Journal of Criminology.

Glenn C. Loury is the Merton P. Stoltz Professor of the Social Sciences and Professor of Economics at Brown University. He received his Ph.D. in economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and has taught previously at Harvard, Northwestern, and the University of Michigan. He has made scholarly contributions to the fields of welfare economics, game theory, industrial organization, natural resource economics, and the economics of income distribution. He has been a scholar in residence at Oxford University, Tel Aviv University, the University of Stockholm, the Delhi School of Economics, the Institute for the Human Sciences
in Vienna, and the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton. He has received a Guggenheim Fellowship to support his work. He is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, a fellow of the Econometric Society, and was elected vice president of the American Economic Association for 1997. His book, One by One, From the Inside Out: Essays and Reviews on Race and Responsibility in America won the 1996 American Book Award and the 1996 Christianity Today Book Award. He was recently elected as a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and as a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
He has published over 200 essays and reviews on racial inequality and social policy. His recent work includes: “Color-Blind Affirmative Action,” accepted for forthcoming publication in Journal of Law, Economics and Organization, (with R. Fryer and T. Yuret); “Valuing Identity: Trans-Generational Justice: Compensatory
vs. Interpretative Approaches,” in Reparations (J. Miller [ed.], Oxford University Press, 2006); “Racial Stigma: Toward a New Paradigm for Discrimination Theory,” in Understanding Poverty (A. Banerjee, R. Benabou and D. Mookherjee [eds.], Oxford University Press, 2005). His books include The Anatomy of Racial Inequality (Harvard University Press, 2002) and Ethnicity, Social Mobility and Public Policy: Comparing the U.S. and the U.K. (Cambridge University Press, 2005).

Shadd Maruna is Dean and Professor at the School of Criminal Justice at Rutgers University Newark, one of the oldest and largest criminology research centers in the US. Previously, he has taught at the University of Cambridge, the University at Albany, SUNY, and Queen’s University Belfast. With Dr. Anna King, he co-directed the Cambridge University Public Opinion Project, funded by the H.F. Guggenheim Foundation, in an effort to better understand the social psychology of punitive attitudes. One of the publications emerging from this research—“Once a Criminal, Always a Criminal?: ‘Redeemability’ and the Psychology of Punitive Public Attitudes.” (European Journal of Criminal Policy and Research, 15, 7-24) — earned Maruna and King the inaugural Howard League for Penal Reform Research Medal in 2012 for their contributions to changing the public conversation around crime and justice issues in the UK. Maruna’s other work has been around understanding the process of successful ex-prisoner reentry. His book Making Good: How Ex- Convicts Reform and Rebuild Their Lives was named the “Outstanding Contribution to Criminology” by the American Society of Criminology in 2001. In 2014, he received the Hans Mattick Award for Distinguished Contribution to Criminology and a prize for Outstanding Impact on Public Policy from the Economic and Social Research Council (UK). Maruna has also been a Soros Justice Fellow and a Fulbright Scholar.

Tracey l. Meares is Walton Hale Hamilton Professor at Yale Law School. Previously she was Max Pam Professor of Law and Director of the Center for Studies in Criminal Justice at the University of Chicago Law School. She has a B.S. in General Engineering from the University of Illinois and a J.D. from the University of Chicago Law School. She has held positions clerking for the Honorable Harlington Wood, Jr., of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit and as a trial attorney in the Antitrust Division of the United States Department of Justice. Since 2004, she has served on the Committee on Law and Justice, a National Research Council Standing Committee of the National Academy of Sciences. Additionally, she has served on two National Research Council Review Committees: one to review research on police policy and practices and another more recently to review the National Institute of Justice. In November of 2010, she was named by Attorney General Eric Holder to sit on the Department of Justice’s newly-created Science Advisory Board. Professor Meares’s teaching and research interests focus on criminal procedure and criminal law policy, with a particular emphasis on empirical investigation of these subjects. Her writings on such issues as crime prevention and community capacity building are concertedly interdisciplinary and reflect a civil society approach to law enforcement that builds upon the interaction between law, culture, social norms, and social organization. She has written widely on these topics in both the academic and trade press. Meares has been especially interested as of late in teaching and writing about communities, police legitimacy and legal policy, and she has lectured on this topic extensively across the country to audiences of academics, lay people, and police professionals.

James Morone is the John Hazen White Professor of Political Science and Public Policy at Brown University where he is director of their Taubman Public Policy Program. He received his Ph.D. at the University of Chicago and has served on the faculty of The University of Chicago, Yale University, and the University of Bremen. He is the author of ten books including, most recently, The Devils We Know: Us and Them in America’s Political Culture; Hellfire Nation: The Politics of Sin in American History (2003) which was nominated for a Pulitzer Prize and named book of the month by the History News Network. Morone’s Democratic Wish: Popular Participation and the Limits of American Government (1990, 1998) won the American Political Science Association’s 1991 Gladys Kammerer Award for the best book in the United States and was named a “notable book of 1991” by the New York Times. A regular contributor to The American Prospect and The London Review of Books, he has authored more than 150 essays on politics, history, and health care.

Stephen J. Morse is Ferdinand Wakeman Hubbell Professor of Law, Professor of Psychology and Law in Psychiatry, and Associate Director, Center for Neuroscience & Society, University of Pennsylvania. He works on problems of individual responsibility and agency. Morse has published numerous interdisciplinary articles and chapters and has co-edited collections, including (with A. Roskies) A Primer on Criminal Law and Neuroscience and (with L.Katz & M. Moore) Foundations of Criminal Law. He was a contributing author (with L. Alexander and K. Ferzan) to Crime and Culpability: A Theory of Criminal Law. He is working on a new book, Desert and Disease: Responsibility and Social Control. Morse was Co-Director of the MacArthur Foundation Law and Neuroscience Project and is currently a member of the MacArthur Foundation Research Network on Law and Neuroscience. In addition to being an attorney, Morse is a Diplomate in Forensic Psychology of the American Board of Professional Psychology. He is a past president of Division 41 of the American Psychological Association; a recipient of the American Academy of Forensic Psychology’s Distinguished Contribution Award; a recipient of the American Psychiatric Association’s Isaac Ray Award for distinguished contributions to forensic psychiatry and the psychiatric aspects of jurisprudence; a member of the MacArthur Foundation Research Network on Mental Health and Law;       and a trustee of the Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law.

Khalil Gibran Muhammad is a Visiting Professor of History at The Graduate Center, CUNY and the director of the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, The New York Public Library. He is a former associate professor at Indiana University and a former Andrew W. Mellon postdoctoral fellow at the Vera Institute of Justice, a nonprofit criminal justice reform agency in New York City. He is the author of The Condemnation of Blackness: Race, Crime, and the Making of Modern Urban America (Harvard University Press, 2011), which won the American Studies Association John Hope Franklin Publication Prize. Muhammad recently served on a National Academy of Sciences committee to study the causes and consequences of high rates of incarceration as well as a New York City Council Taskforce on Gun Violence.

Naomi Murakawa is an associate professor of African American Studies at Princeton University. She holds a Ph.D. in political science from Yale University, and previously she was an assistant professor in the programs of Law, Societies, and Justice and Political Science at the University of Washington. She is the author of The First Civil Right: How Liberals Built Prison America (Oxford University Press, August 2014), and her work has appeared in Law and Society Review, Theoretical Criminology, Du Bois Review, and several edited volumes. She has received fellowships from the Columbia Law School’s Center for the Study of Law and Culture, as well the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation’s Health Policy Research Program.

Christian Pfeiffer studied Law and Social Psychology in Munich and London. In 1987 he became Professor of Criminology, Juvenile Criminal Law and Corrections at the University of Hanover and Director of the Criminological Research Institute of Lower Saxony (KFN) which is the largest Institute of its kind in Germany (20 researchers). From 2000 to 2003 he was Minister of Justice in Lower Saxony. Since then he returned to his former position at the KFN. One main topic of the KFN-research is youth. Since 2005 the Institute published several studies on the impact of media use, video game dependency, school achievement, and truancy on the poor development and performance among boys. At present, Pfeiffer and two members of his team are preparing the evaluation of several school projects in Lower Saxony. Current research projects of particular interest include a comparative analysis of corporal punishment, the discipline of children and the relationship toward later attitudes of punitiveness.

Julian Roberts is Professor of Criminology at the Centre for Criminology, Faculty of Law, Oxford University and a member of the Sentencing Council of England and Wales. Previously he was a Professor in the Department of Criminology at the University of Ottawa, Canada. He holds a Ph.D. in criminology from the University of Toronto and is a leading expert in the areas of sentencing and public attitudes toward punishment. His books include: Popular Punishment (Oxford University Press, 2014, with J. Ryberg); Sentencing Guidelines (Oxford University Press, 2013, with A.Ashworth); Sentencing for Murder (Hart, 2012, with B. Mitchell); Aggravation and Mitigation at Sentencing (Cambridge University Press, 2011); Previous Convictions at Sentencing (Hart, 2010 with A. von Hirsch); Punishing Persistent Offenders (Oxford University Press, 2008) Understanding Public Attitudes to Criminal Justice (Oxford University Press, 2005, with M. Hough), and The Virtual Prison (Cambridge University Press, 2005).

Andrew Skotnicki is Professor of Christian Ethics at Manhattan College in New York. He received his Ph.D. from the Graduate Theological Union, Berkeley, California. He is the author of Religion and the Development of the American Penal System, Criminal Justice and the Catholic Church, The Last Judgment: Christian Ethics in a Legal Culture, and numerous articles on the intersection of theology, ethics, and criminal justice. He is also founder and director of the program “Engaging, Educating, and Empowering Means Change” (E3MC), a partnership between Manhattan College and the New York City jail complex on Rikers Island, in which an equal number of students from the main campus and incarcerated men or women take an accredited college course together. Upon successful completion of the course, the incarcerated students are given the opportunity to continue their education free of charge at the main campus upon release from confinement.

Sonja Snacken is Professor of Criminology, Penology and Sociology of Law at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (Belgium). Her research focuses on penality in Belgium and Europe, with a special interest in integrating an empirical social scientist approach with human rights concerns. She has been involved for many years in standard setting and monitoring of prison conditions throughout Europe. She was Research Fellow at the Straus Institute for the Advanced Study of Law and Justice at the New York University School of Law (2010-2011) and is associate member of the Centre International de Criminologie Comparée of the University of Montréal (since 2010). She was awarded the Belgian Francqui Chair (2008-2009) and the Ernest-John Solvay Prize for Scientific Excellence in the Human and Social Sciences by the National Science Foundation (2010). International publications include: van Zyl Smit, S. & Snacken, S. (2009) Principles of European Prison Law and Policy, Penology and Human Rights, Oxford: Oxford University Press; Snacken, S. (2011) Prisons en Europe. Pour une pénologie critique et humaniste, Bruxelles: Larcier ; Snacken & Dumortier (eds) (2012) Resisting Punitiveness in Europe? Welfare, Human rights and Democracy, London, New York: Routledge; Daems, T., van Zyl Smit, D. & Snacken, S. (eds) (2013) European Penology? Oxford: Hart; Body-Gendrot, S., Hough, M., Kerezsi, K. Lévy, R. & Snacken, S. (eds) (2013) The Routledge Handbook of European Criminology, London, New York: Routledge.

Michael Tonry is the McKnight Presidential Professor of Criminal Law and Policy, director of the Institute on Crime and Public Policy of the University of Minnesota, and a Scientific Member of the Max Planck Institute on Comparative and International Criminal Law in Freiburg, Germany. He received an LL.B. at Yale Law School and a Ph.D. (h.c.) from Free University Amsterdam. He was formerly Professor of Law and Public Policy and Director of the Institute of Criminology at Cambridge University. Since 2001, he has been a Visiting Professor of Law and Criminology at the University of Lausanne, Switzerland, and since 2003, a Senior Fellow in the Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime and Law Enforcement, Free University Amsterdam. He has been a Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford, and has held visiting posts at the University of Leiden, The Netherlands, and the Max Planck Institute in Freiburg. Professor Tonry is an expert on sentencing and punishment, and is author or editor of many books, including Between Prison and Probation (with Norval Morris; Oxford University Press, 1991), Malign Neglect (OUP 1995), Sentencing Matters (Oxford University Press, 1996), Thinking About Crime (Oxford University Press, 2004), Punishment and Politics— Evidence and Emulation in the Making of English Penal Policy (Willan 2004), Punishing Race (Oxford University Press, 2011), and, as editor, Prosecutors and Politics in Comparative Perspective (University of Chicago Press, 2012) and Crime and Justice in America, 1975-2025 (University of Chicago Press, 2013).

Jeremy Travis is President of John Jay College of Criminal Justice at the City University of New York. He served as Chair of the consensus panel on the Causes and Consequences of High Rates of Incarceration, convened by the National Academy of Sciences.  This report, released in 2014, highlights the unique American experience with punitive criminal sanctions. Prior to his appointment, he served as a Senior Fellow in the Urban Institute’s Justice Policy Center, where he launched a national research program focused on prisoner reentry into society. From 1994- 2000, Travis directed the National Institute of Justice, the research arm of the U.S. Department of Justice. Prior to his service in Washington, he was Deputy Commissioner for Legal Matters for the New York City Police Department (1990-1994), a Special Advisor to New York City Mayor Edward I. Koch (1986-89), and Special Counsel to the Police Commissioner of the NYPD (1984-86). Before joining city government, Travis spent a year as a law clerk to then-U.S. Court of Appeals Judge Ruth Bader Ginsburg. He began his career in criminal justice working as a legal services assistant for the Legal Aid Society, New York’s indigent defense agency. He has taught courses on criminal justice, public policy, history and law at Yale College, the New York University Wagner Graduate School of Public Service, New York Law School and George Washington University. He has a J.D. from the New York University School of Law, an M.P.A. from the New York University Wagner Graduate School of Public Service, and a B.A. in American Studies from Yale College. He is the author of But They All Come Back: Facing the Challenges of Prisoner Reentry (Urban Institute Press, 2005), co-editor (with Christy Visher) of Prisoner Reentry and Crime in America (Cambridge University Press, 2005), and co-editor (with Michelle Waul) of Prisoners Once Removed: The Impact of Incarceration and Reentry on Children, Families, and Communities (Urban Institute Press, 2003). He has published numerous book chapters, articles and monographs on constitutional law, criminal law and criminal justice policy.

Nicholas Turner joined Vera as its fifth president and director in August, 2013. Prior to joining he was a managing director at The Rockefeller Foundation. Nick was previously vice president and chief program officer at Vera. At the Rockefeller Foundation, Nick was a member of the foundation’s senior leadership team and a co-leader of its global urban efforts. He provided leadership and strategic direction on key initiatives, including transportation policy reform in the U.S. to promote social, economic, and environmental interests, and redevelopment in New Orleans to advance racial and socioeconomic integration. At Vera, which he first joined in 1998, Nick developed ideas for demonstration projects aimed at keeping troubled youth out of the justice system and easing reentry for adult prisoners. He also guided the expansion of Vera’s national work, launching and directing Vera’s state sentencing and corrections initiative, while supervising Vera’s domestic violence projects and the creation of its youth justice program. As vice president and chief program officer, Nick was responsible for the development and launch of the Prosecution and Racial Justice Program and the Commission on Safety and Abuse in America’s Prisons. Prior to his work with Vera, Nick was an associate in the litigation department of Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison in New York from 1997 to 1998. He was a judicial clerk for the Honorable Jack. B. Weinstein, Senior United States District Judge in Brooklyn from 1996 to 1997. Before attending law school, Nick worked with court-involved, homeless, and troubled young people at Sasha Bruce Youthwork, a Washington, DC youth services organization, from 1989 to 1993. He has published a number of articles on criminal justice, including Politics, Public Service, and Professionalism: Conflicting Themes in the Invention and Evaluation of Community Prosecution (with Chris Stone, 1999) and “The Cost of Avoiding Injustice by Guideline Circumventions,” in Federal Sentencing Reporter (with the Honorable Jack B. Weinstein, 1997). He is also co-author of the recent op-eds “The Steep Cost of America’s High Incarceration Rate” (with Robert Rubin, co-chairman of the Council on Foreign Relations and a former U.S. Treasury secretary, the Wall Street Journal, Dec. 25, 2014) and “Treating Prisoners with Dignity Can Reduce Crime” (with John Wetzel, secretary of the Pennsylvania Department of Corrections, National Journal’s The Next America, May 22, 2014). Nick has served on the boards of Eno Center for Transportation, National Council on Crime and Delinquency, Living Cities, Center for Working Families, and St. Christopher’s Inc. Nick received his BA from Yale College and his JD from Yale Law School.

Tom R. Tyler is the Macklin Fleming Professor of Law and Professor of Psychology at Yale Law School. He is also a professor (by courtesy) at the Yale School of Management. He holds a Ph.D. in social psychology from the University of California at Los Angeles. He joined the Yale Law faculty in January 2012 as a Professor of law and psychology. He was previously a University Professor at New York University, where he taught in both the psychology department and the law school. Prior to joining NYU in 1997, he taught at the University of California, Berkeley, and at Northwestern University. Professor Tyler’s research explores the role of justice in shaping people’s relationships with groups, organizations, communities, and societies. In particular, he examines the role of judgments about the justice or injustice of group procedures in shaping legitimacy, compliance, and cooperation. He is the author of several books, including Why People Cooperate (2011); Legitimacy and Criminal Justice (2007); Why People Obey the Law (2006); Trust in the Law (2002); and Cooperation in Groups (2000). He was awarded the Harry Kalven prize for “paradigm shifting scholarship in the study of law and society” by the Law and Society Association in 2000, and in 2012, was honored by the International Society for Justice Research with its Lifetime Achievement Award for innovative research on social justice.

Bruce Western is Professor of Sociology and director of the Malcolm Wiener Center for Social Policy at the Harvard Kennedy School of Government. Dr. Western serves as Vice Chair of the National Academy of Sciences panel on incarceration mentioned in the bio of Jeremy Travis. He received his B.A. in Government from the University of Queensland, Australia, and his M.A. and Ph.D. in sociology from the University of California, Los Angeles. His recent work has focused on the link between social inequality and the growth of prison and jail population in the United States. He finds that the penal system has become a common presence in the lives of poor Americans, with lasting effects on their life chances. As a quantitative social scientist, he has also contributed to the use of Bayesian statistics in sociology. His first book Between Class and Market: Postwar Unionization in the Capitalist Democracies (Princeton University Press, 1997) examined the growth and decline of trade unions in capitalist democracies. In this volume, he argues that unions declined in countries without centralized labor markets, union control over the administration of unemployment policies, and strong working class parties. In his second book Punishment and Inequality in America (Russell Sage Foundation, 2006), he asks what role incarceration plays in the increasing economic and racial inequality in America. The book studies the social and economic effects of mass incarceration: serving time in prison reduces earnings, skews statistics on wages and employment, and destabilizes families.

James Q. Whitman is the Ford Foundation Professor of Comparative and Foreign Law at Yale Law School. He earned his B.A. and J.D. from Yale University and Law School and also holds an M.A. in European History from Columbia University and a Ph.D. in Intellectual History from the University of Chicago. From 1988-1989, Professor Whitman clerked for the Hon. Ralph K. Winter of the Second Circuit Court of Appeals, then began his teaching career at Stanford University Law School. He has taught as a visiting professor at universities in France and Italy and has been a professor at Yale Law School since 1994. In 1996 he became the Ford Foundation Professor of Comparative and Foreign Law. Professor Whitman’s many articles have been published internationally and across disciplines. He has also been awarded numerous prizes and fellowships throughout his career. In 2008 he published The Origins of Reasonable Doubt: Theological Roots of the Criminal Trial, which received an honorable mention, Silver Gavel Award, American Bar Association, 2009. His book The Verdict of Battle: The Law of Victory and the Making of Modern War appeared in 2012. He was a John Simon Guggenheim Fellow in 2010-2011. His other scholarship includes an article, “The Two Western Cultures of Privacy: Dignity versus Liberty” (TheYale Law Journal, 2004). His book, Harsh Justice: Criminal Punishment and the Widening Divide Between America and Europe, (Oxford University Press, 2003) won the 2004 Distinguished Book Award of the Division of International Criminology of the American Society of Criminology.

Cathy Spatz Widom is Distinguished Professor in the Psychology Department at John Jay College and a member of the Graduate Center faculty, City University of New York. She is
a fellow of the American Psychological Association (Division 41 - Law and Psychology), the American Psychopathological Association, and the American Society of Criminology. A former faculty member at Harvard, Indiana, University at Albany (SUNY), and New Jersey Medical School, Widom was co-editor of Journal of Quantitative Criminology and has served on the editorial boards of psychology, criminology, and child maltreatment journals. She is a frequent consultant on national review panels and has been invited to testify before congressional and state committees. She has published extensively on the long-term consequences of child abuse and neglect, including numerous papers on the cycle of violence. Widom serves on the Committee on Law and Justice at the Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences at the National Research Council (NRC) and was co-chair of the NRC Panel on Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Professor Widom has received numerous awards for her research, including the 1989 American Association for the Advancement of Science Behavioral Science Research Prize for her paper on the “cycle of violence.” Since 1986, Widom has been engaged in a large study to determine the long-term consequences of early childhood abuse (physical and sexual) and neglect and has just completed research on the intergenerational transmission of child abuse and neglect.

Howard Zehr, widely known as “the grandfather of restorative justice,” began as a practitioner and theorist in restorative justice in the late 1970s at the foundational stage of the field. He has led hundreds of events in more than 25 countries and 35 states, including trainings and consultations on restorative justice, victim-offender conferencing, judicial reform, and other criminal justice matters. His impact has been especially significant in the United States, Brazil, Japan, Jamaica, Northern Ireland, Britain, the Ukraine, and New Zealand, a country that has restructured its juvenile justice system into a family-focused, restorative approach. A prolific writer and editor, speaker, educator, and photojournalist, Zehr actively mentors other leaders in the field. More than 1,000 people have taken Zehr-taught courses and intensive workshops in restorative justice, many of whom lead their own restorative justice-focused organizations. Zehr was an early advocate of making the needs of victims central to the practice of restorative justice. A core theme in his work is respect for the dignity of all peoples. From 2008-2011 he served on the Victims Advisory Group of the U.S. Sentencing Commission. He serves on various other advisory boards. In 2013, Zehr stepped away from active classroom teaching and became co-director, with Dr. Carl Stauffer, of the new Zehr Institute for Restorative Justice.


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